Sunday, July 26, 2015

The Friends of Makakilo Asking Hawaii LUC For New Hearing On Ho‘opili

 The Friends of Makakilo Asking Hawaii LUC For New Hearing On Ho‘opili

This motion for Order to Show Cause (OSC) was filed on Thursday July 23, 2015 by Dr. Kioni Dudley in the docket A06-771 D.R. Horton – Schuler Homes for the project referred to as Ho`opili in `Ewa, O`ahu.  The OSC asks that the Land Use Commission consider whether it appears, based on the information provided in the Motion, that the Petitioner has violated or failed to comply with conditions in the decision and order approving the Petition.

Motion for Order to Show Cause, Affidavit of Dr. Dudley, Certificate of Service
Exhibit List
Exhibits 1-58
Exhibits 59-62
Cover sheets for Motion and Exhibits

Hoopili Critics persists with challenge

Hoopili Traffic Is A Major Issue

By Andrew Gomes       Jul 25, 2015

One of the main opponents of building 11,750 homes at the planned Ho‘opili community on Oahu’s Ewa Plain wants to re-contest a key state approval in  hopes of blocking the project, which obtained city zoning in May.

Community group The Friends of Makakilo Inc., led by Kioni Dudley, filed a  motion with the state Land Use Commission on Thursday asking the LUC to  hold a fresh hearing over whether Ho‘opili should be allowed to go forward on what is 1,553 acres of prime farmland.

Dudley’s motion is largely based on a contention that a traffic analysis from Ho‘opili developer D.R. Horton is underpinned by bogus housing data and was validated by state and city officials who received campaign contributions or improper gifts from companies that stand to benefit from Ho‘opili work or Horton.

Dudley also contends that Mayor Kirk Caldwell and City Council members all received campaign contributions from construction industry entities in favor of Ho‘opili, thus raising questions about the review and approval of the traffic study.

Other allegations made in the motion contend that Horton hasn’t followed through on commitments to help relocate farmers on the land, direct stormwater runoff, provide Native Hawaiian access and notify the commission of plans to sell or lease land within the project.

“Our arguments are powerful, convincing, and backed up with evidence that is too solid to be assailed,” Dudley said in a written announcement.


LUC approval was a preliminary yet pivotal entitlement Horton needed to proceed with Ho‘opili. The commission was charged with deciding whether it was appropriate to allow urban development on land long designated by the state for agricultural use.

Heavily congested traffic on the H-1 freeway has been a huge concern, and is the key issue Dudley said constitutes grounds for reopening the case.

Dudley, who unsuccessfully contested Ho‘opili at LUC hearings in 2011 and 2012 with expert witnesses in conjunction with a similar effort by the Sierra Club and then-state Sen. Clayton Hee, said that he should have had an opportunity to challenge the traffic report during initial hearings but that the report was produced after the commission approved the housing project.

The traffic report, which is an updated version of an initial draft produced by Austin Tsutsumi and Associates for Horton and presented to the LUC, was to be submitted to and deemed acceptable by the state Department of Transportation, the city Department of Transportation Services and the city Department of Planning and Permitting as part of a condition imposed by the LUC.

Dudley also believes that perhaps some officials will take a different view of the traffic report data and conclusions based on the issues he is raising, especially since the LUC has a new composition since Gov. David Ige took office in December.

“We hopefully will have a real chance to confront (Horton officials) on their numbers,” Dudley said in an interview.

Dudley’s motion contends that the report uses a base-line count of 22,048 existing homes in the Ewa-Kapolei region in 2007 and that this is 15 percent under the 25,800 homes listed in the Oahu Regional Transportation Plan from the Oahu Metropolitan Planning Organization.

In terms of a projected number of homes in 2035, Horton’s number is 39,669 and is 31 percent under the ORTP projection of 57,100, the motion said.

The alleged undercounting, Dudley’s motion claims, allows Horton to conclude that adding one lane in each direction on H-1 along a bottleneck around the intersection with H-2 will reduce congestion to an acceptable level.

Dudley’s motion also suggests that a DOT official who testified during LUC hearings and “secured approval” of the traffic report in July 2014 could have been influenced by improper gifts from companies that stand to gain work through Horton.

The official was DOT Highways Division Chief Alvin Takeshita, who retired shortly before the state Ethics Commission announced in February a resolution of formal charges that Takeshita and eight other state employees illegally accepted free golf from companies doing business with the state.

Takeshita, according to the Ethics Commission, participated in 10 golf tournaments and an additional three rounds of golf at the expense of concrete and rock producer Ameron Hawaii, engineering firm SSFM International, planning and engineering firm R.M. Towill Corp. and infrastructure consulting firm Parsons Brinckerhoff. Dudley said some of these companies could derive business from Horton. Takeshita settled the charges against him by paying an administrative fine of $5,750.

Horton officials said they have no forecast on when they expect to break ground on Ho‘opili. Work is progressing on infrastructure studies that are necessary before the developer can apply for a city subdivision permit.

Ho'opili Project Has Major Problem Directing Impervious Surface Runoff Water

by John Bond   Kanehili Cultural Hui

Hoopili Drainage Will Run Into Pearl Harbor, Ewa Shoreline 


 Hoopili Drainage Will Run Into Pearl Harbor

The Entire Ewa Plain Marine Eco-System Is Being Killed By Massive Over Development

Hoopili Covers Massive Areas Of Farmland With Concrete And Asphalt

The Entire Ewa Plain Marine Eco-System Is Being Killed By Massive Over Development

 Hoopili Drainage Will Pollute Ewa's Reef And Kill The Marine Eco System

Photos Of West Oahu Community Opposition At HART Rail Hoopili Station Meeting In Kapolei


Photos Of West Oahu Community Opposition At City's Kapolei Important Agricultural Lands Meeting

Photos Of West Oahu Community Protests Of Hoopili Project Destroying 1500 Acres Of Prime Historic Ewa Farmland

Photos Of Protest Of Day Of Infamy City Bill 3 Which Destroys 1500 Acres Of Historic Prime Ewa Farmland 


FTA HART Rail Farmland Dump Site Is Well Documented Native Hawaiian Burial Place

Ho'opili Project Is Definition Of Insanity - From Transit System To Really Massive Land Development Scheme

May 2013 Kanehili Hui Comments Sent To Hawaii State Preservation Division Regarding Rail Lawsuit

May 2013 Kanehili Hui Comments Sent To Hawaii State Preservation Division Regarding Rail Lawsuit

Extensive Testimony and Comments Delivered To SHPD
SHPD Confirmation of Receipt of Comments on Honolulu Rail AIS May 31, 2013

by John Bond,   Kanehili Cultural Hui


The ruling of Federal Judge Wallace Tashima on the City rail lawsuit made a special point of noting his concern about the identification of TCP's along the HART rail route. It was later made clear in recent HART meetings that TCP's include ALL CULTURES, not just native Hawaiian, as per Federal law that SHPD, HART and FTA must follow. A great deal was left out of the original 2009 AIS (Archaeological Inventory Survey) of Honouliuli-Ewa that these new comments and documents hope to correct.

The Federal FTA HART rail project is required to also adhere to what is known as "Section 4f." Department of Transportation Act of 1966 special provision - Section 4(f) - which stipulated that DOT agencies- including FTA, cannot approve the use of land from wildlife and waterfowl refuges, public or private historical sites unless the following conditions apply:
1. There is no feasible and prudent alternative.
2. The action includes all possible planning to minimize harm to the
property resulting from use.

Mike Lee, along with Hawaii Thousand Friends, submitted approximately 800 pages of detailed comment and testimony on the the HART Rail AIS- the entire 22 mile route. This package included maps, photographs, emails with many agencies (HART, SHPD, DLNR, BLNR, OIBC, HCDA, etc.)
that go back nearly a decade, as well as news articles, historic research and citations, legal documents and filings, native Hawaiian rights, the Clean Water Act, and much more.

A key issue for Mike Lee is the identification of the ancient coral reef limestone along the Oahu shoreline known as Karst, which connects volcanic mountain lava tube water to the shoreline Karst reef water systems. These water springs feed a shoreline ecosystem and was how ancient Hawaiians managed their fish ponds. The Karst was also of very high spiritual importance to ancient Hawaiians and used for sacred burials, such as downtown Honolulu on the grounds of I'olani Palace where there is an ancient Karst burial cave.

"I wanted them to know that I wasn't just making this up ten minutes ago" said Hawaiian cultural practitioner Mike Lee. "I am a Konohikist- I believe in the ecological management and protection of our very important natural island water systems. Protecting our Wahi Kapu sites is also very important to me "

The Mike Lee testimony and comments concern identification and protection of important Hawaiian cultural sites along the rail route, including wahi pana (sacred sites) and wahi kapu (sacred burial areas) and their inclusion into a TCP (Traditional Cultural Properties) that would make sure these special sites, caves, caverns, springs, ponds and water systems are preserved and not contaminated during rail construction.

Also included were photographs of Kawaiaha'o Church which is a graphic example of early Karst limestone block construction. The church and surrounding walls are made of rough ancient reef from the shoreline and ancient sea shells and marine organisms can be clearly seen. The church is also located on the site of an important ancient Karst spring. Nearby I'olani Palace and the royal guard barracks are also constructed from Karst limestone blocks from the shoreline.

In addition, Kanehili Cultural Hui also submitted another approximately 250 pages of detailed comment and testimony on the the HART Rail AIS- primarily concerned with the Honouliuli-Ewa area and the documentation of previously unidentified Traditional Cultural Properties (TCP), Ewa Historic Districts, Ewa Dec 7, 1941 Battlefield Area and an outline for a Honouliuli-Ewa Cultural Landscape Report. Many current or former Ewa Village residents helped by supplying historic documents, maps, photos and oral histories.

The Kanehili Hui name comes from the original Hawaiian name for the Honouliuli-Ewa area and is mentioned by Hawaiian goddess Hi'iaka in her famous and often quoted chants when she traveled through the Ewa Plains area aprroximately 1000 years ago. The Kanehili Cultural Hui 501-c-3 non-profit community organization is concerned with the entire cultural history of the area- from ancient times to modern times.

A key focus of the Kanehili Cultural Hui report and testimony was on the 1825 Malden Trails (ancient Hawaiian Trails- believed to have possibly been originally constructed by very early Tahitian arrivals to Kanehili) which played a major role in the Hawaiian cultural history of the Honouliuli-Ewa area, and which was ENTIRELY LEFT OUT of the HART Rail AIS. The fixed guideway and stations directly overlay the 1825 trails as well as the Kalo'i Karst waterway that flows to the Ewa shoreline.

Also of major importance is the identification and location of the Leina a ka Uhane, a sacred spiritual leaping off place for souls returning to the ancient homeland of Tahiti. This is a National Register eligible TCP, yet HART and the SHPD administrator has continuously tried to minimize the importance and geographic area of this TCP as well as apparently intentionally misidentify its location, despite the error being brought to their attention several times since last year.

The previous Rail AIS also failed in many ways to adequately document important Honouliuli-Ewa cultural sites such as the greater Ewa Plantation and railway network that was the largest private railway in Hawaii. The Oahu Railway that served Honouliuli-Ewa plantation railway was chartered under King David Kalakaua.

A Cultural Landscape Report (CLR) is the primary report that documents the history, significance and treatment of a cultural landscape. A CLR evaluates the history and integrity of the landscape including any changes to its geographical context, features, materials,and use.

John Bond
Kanehili Cultural Hui

---------- Forwarded message ----------
From:  <>
Date: Fri, May 31, 2013 at 9:17 AM
Subject: Confirmation of Receipt of Comments on Honolulu Rail AIS

Hello John,

I'm writing to confirm receipt of your public review comments on the
HART AIS via in-person delivery at 3:02pm 5/30/2013.

Thank you in advance for your public comment.



Susan A. Lebo, PhD
Oahu Lead Archaeologist
State Historic Preservation Division
Kakuhihewa Building
601 Kamokila Blvd., Suite 555
Kapolei, Hawaii 96707
(808) 692-8019

Saturday, July 25, 2015

Federal Judge Wallace Tashima Ruled City Rail Must Identify Above-Ground TCPs Within The Rail Corridor

Federal Judge Wallace Tashima Ruled City Rail Must Identify Above-Ground TCPs Within The Rail Corridor

by John Bond   Kanehili Cultural Hui

Federal Judge Tashima, who is overseeing the case after all 7 of Hawaii’s U.S. District judges were recused, agreed the city failed to consider the traditional cultural properties,

Another lawyer who has followed this case closely, said: "Whenever a judge finds that the government acted 'arbitrarily and capriciously' those are code words to lawyers: the government went way 'off the rails,' so to speak. It takes quite a bit of convincing to get a judge to reach that conclusion,  so the arguments the plaintiffs put on must’ve really convinced Judge Tashima."

The Hawaii Supreme Court ruled in a unanimous 82-page opinion in Kaleikini v. Yoshioka, that the City did not comply with the State's historic preservation and burial protection laws when it failed to complete an archeological inventory survey for the 20-mile route before starting construction.

The lawsuit was brought by Paulette Kalekini, a native Hawaiian whose ancestors’ iwi or bones may be displaced by the rail. Her case, which was argued by the Native Hawaiian Legal Corporation on her behalf, brought the rail project to a halt on August 27, 2012. The court maintained "it is undisputed that the rail project has a 'high' likelihood of having a potential effect on archeological resources...."

There is no discussion in the record of the Section 4(f) eligibility of any identified TCPs other than Chinatown, and the FEIS and PA suggest that only “preliminary” efforts have been made to investigate whether meaningful cultural properties are situated within the Project corridor. Because Defendants have presented no reason why it would have been unreasonably difficult to identify such above-ground TCPs prior to issuance of the ROD, this decision to delay full study of above-ground TCPs was arbitrary and capricious.

Before continuing with the Project in any way that may use unidentified TCPs, Defendants must complete their identification of above-ground TCPs within the corridor.

For any TCPs identified, Defendants must conduct a complete Section 4(f) analysis. The ROD must be supplemented to include any newly identified TCPs. The FEIS must also be supplemented to the extent that this process requires changes that “may result in significant environmental impacts
‘in a manner not previously evaluated and considered.’”

Constructive Use Determinations

A Section 4(f) site is “used” when land is permanently incorporated into a transportation facility, when there is a temporary occupancy of land that is adverse in terms of the statute’s preservation purpose, or when there is a constructive use of land. 23 C.F.R. § 774.17; see also Adler, 675 F.2d at 1092 (noting that the term “use” is to be construed broadly to include areas that are significantly, adversely affected by a project but are not physically taken).

The regulations provide: A constructive use occurs when . . . the project’s proximity impacts are so
severe that the protected activities, features, or attributes that qualify the property for protection under Section 4(f) are substantially impaired. Substantial impairment occurs only when the protected activities, features, or attributes of the property are substantially diminished.

3. Analysis of Environmental Consequences
An EIS must contain a “reasonably thorough discussion” of a project’s environmental consequences and mitigation measures. Nat’l Parks & Conservation Ass’n, 606 F.3d at 1072-73; see also 42 U.S.C. § 4332(2)(C). The EIS must discuss the project’s direct effects and reasonably foreseeable indirect and cumulative effects, including growth-inducing effects.

Plaintiffs argue that Defendants have failed to meet their duty to assess the indirect effects that historic resources other than Chinatown and Merchant Street located near the rail stations will suffer due to the project. The NHPA requires agencies to assess whether historic properties will suffer adverse effects, which occur when an undertaking may alter, directly or indirectly, any of the characteristics that qualify a property for inclusion in the National Register. 36 C.F.R. § 800.5(a)(1). The agency must then consult with relevant parties to develop and evaluate alternatives and modifications to the undertaking that could avoid, minimize, or mitigate those adverse effects. 36 C.F.R. § 800.6(a); Muckleshoot Indian Tribe, 177 F.3d at 805 (observing that § 106 is a “stop, look, and listen” provision requiring agencies to consider the effects of their programs). A PA can serve as evidence of the agency’s compliance with these requirements. 36 C.F.R. §

III. Conclusion and Remedy
For the reasons set forth above:
A. The Court grants Plaintiffs’ Motion for Summary Judgment (Doc. 109) with respect to: (1) their Section 4(f) claims that Defendants arbitrarily and capriciously failed to complete reasonable efforts to identify above-ground TCPs prior to issuing the ROD;

/s/ A. Wallace Tashima
United States Circuit Judge
Sitting by Designation

FTA Funded HART Rail Has Greatly Corrupted Hawaii's Already Corrupt City And State Government

How Much MORE Has FTA Funded HART Rail Corrupted Hawaii's Already Corrupt Government?

Honolulu Ethics Commission Fines Romy Cachola $50K

State Rep. Romy Cachola has agreed to pay $50,000 to settle an ethics case stemming from his time on the Honolulu City Council.
“This case is a perfect storm of public corruption,” Totto said in the press release.
 People in Kapolei are well aware of how the Kapolei Chamber of Commerce was a primary employer of Nester Garcia who always voted as he was paid to do...

Ribellia is a lobbyist for Hawaii Operating Engineers Industry Stabilization Fund.

She’s also a former staffer for Honolulu City Council Chairman Ernie Martin.

Retiring City Clerk Bernice Mau, however, was troubled by the inclusion of Ribellia in the resolution.

She submitted written testimony questioning why the deputy clerk position was needed, especially since it had been left vacant for nearly three decades.

City Council Rail Pusher Nestor Garcia Resigns From KHON2 News

Meanwhile, the case has also exposed — and raised concerns —
about another angle of ethics investigations: what happens to the
lobbyists and other special interests who knowingly contribute to
unethical behavior?

The commission won’t reveal the names of the lobbyists or the
companies they represent that are involved in cases, saying to do
so would have a chilling effect in that lobbyists would be reluctant
to provide evidence against elected officials if they were going
to get into trouble, too.

 People in Kapolei are well aware of all the payments made by Kapolei Development
and Dr. Horton to get the City Council votes they wanted

"Cachola outed Mike Kido, David Rae, Steve Kelly and Cameron Nekota..."

HART Rail Auditor Arrested for Money Laundering

A local businessman with University of Hawaii athletics fundraising ties (and who provides auditing services to HART and OHA and has a contract to overhaul the state's accounting system) was arrested for theft and money laundering. 

Patrick Oki, age 45, was picked up by authorities just before 11 a.m. Sunday at the Honolulu International Airport. He’s the managing partner of PKF Pacific Hawaii. 

It is alleged that during the period from Jan. 27, 2011, through and including Jan. 27, 2014, he perpetrated four separate and distinct fraudulent reimbursement schemes against PKF Pacific Hawaii LLP, which sustained losses of more than $500,000.

Friday, January 23, 2015

"Shell Game" Honolulu HART Rail Barely Started Already Massive $1 Billion In Debt

Rail deficit grows to as much as $910 million

without bus funds

By Andrew Pereira   KITV   Jan 20, 2015

"This whole shell game of their financial plan is a big worry."

HONOLULU —When the Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation announced last month that the city's $5.3 billion elevated rail project could go over its budget by $550 million to $700 million, members of the City Council were stunned by the escalating costs.

Now, KITV4 has learned the actual deficit for the controversial project could be as much as $910 million since Mayor Kirk Caldwell has already ruled out the use of $210 million in federal bus subsidies for construction. Known as 5307 bus funds under the Federal Transit Administration's Urbanized Area Formula Program, the subsidy goes directly toward the operation and maintenance of the city's bus and Handi-Van systems.


Honolulu HART Rail Barely Started Already

Massive $1 Billion In Debt

Project’s financial plan a “shell game”

  By Nick Grube   January 22, 2015 

Honolulu Mayor Kirk Caldwell’s desire to protect $210 million in federal bus funding means the city’s $6 billion rail project needs even more money than officials had recently announced.

In December, Honolulu Authority for Rapid Transportation Executive Director and CEO Dan Grabauskas said the project was estimated to go over budget by $550 million to $700 million.

And while Grabauskas knew the city didn’t want to spend the $210 million on rail, he didn’t include it in the projected shortfall. If he had, the range would be $710 million to $910 million.

KITV reported the discrepancy Tuesday, including quotes from Honolulu City Council members who raised questions about whether HART and city officials were being truthful about just how much money was needed to complete the project.


West Oahu Eco-Disaster: HART Rail Hitting Karst Water, Sea Caves And Polluting Ewa-Honoululi-Waipahu Wetlands

West Oahu's greatest natural apocalypse is unfolding, with hundreds 
of 8 foot in diameter, 200 foot deep drill bores, the ancient karst water, sea caves and
wetlands are being fractured and polluted, then to be followed by
a major new asphalt and concrete city based around
three huge HART Rail Transit Oriented Developments.

The already fragile Ewa Plain ecosystem based on natural clean water will be destroyed.


HART Rail Ewa Plain Route Drills Into Major 1000 Year Old Native Hawaiian Burial Grounds

By John Bond,   Kanehili Cultural Hui

The Great Honouliuli Ewa Apocalypse Returns

"A lot of people were born and died all over these Islands.  They don't just disappear." 
— William Aila, Hui Malama (before becoming DLNR Chair and now DHHL deputy.) 


Hidden costs revealed as rail project struggles with budget

By Andrew Pereira   KITV   Dec 26, 2014

Meanwhile, issues related to construction of the elevated rail line were also highlighted in the November Progress Report, which showed 21 of the 191 shafts along the first half of the 20-mile route failed a concrete stress test. Known as Cross hole Sonic Logging, the test determines the structural soundness of concrete within a shaft's rebar cage.


New AIS Testimony: Rail Route Illegally Damages Hawaiian Cultural Properties

Ho'opili Project Is Definition Of Insanity - From Transit System To Really Massive Land Development Scheme

You have to really wonder why so many experts in soil science, traffic, farming and three former governors OPPOSED the Ho'opili Project. The main PROPONENT for Ho'opili was Ex-Governor Abercrombie and we all know how popular he became after shoving it forward in 2012 with his pro-developer stacked Land Use Commission panel.

 H-1 is already a total nightmare and this project will way OVERBUILD West Oahu adding 12,000 more homes on top of many other large home and land development projects. This will literally create a major environmental DISASTER with completely grid locked traffic. Absolutely everything is BAD about this project because it also paves over West Oahu's best farmland and creates massive polluted water runoff that will be directed either into Pearl Harbor or the offshore reef system.

Hawaii Land Use Commission Disputes

Developer’s Assurance on Hoopili

December 2, 2014   By Anita Hofschneider   Civil Beat

D.R. Horton is seeking a zone change before the Honolulu Planning Commission on Wednesday and hoping to move forward with the project after four years of lawsuits and bureaucratic hurdles. But the development is still under fire from critics like Kioni Dudley of the group Friends of Makakilo, who most recently wrote a letter to the commission arguing that the city didn’t properly accept a traffic impact analysis report.

Tuesday, January 6, 2015

Voice of Kapolei - Ewa Plain Sacred Trails

Voice of Kapolei - Ewa Plain Sacred Trails

By John Bond   Kanehili Cultural Hui   November 30, 2012

The recent Federal ruling on Rail stated that the City and HART FAILED to adequately identify TCP's (Traditional Cultural Places) along the Honolulu Rail route corridor.

In fact, HART has published a map where the extremely important 1825 Malden Trails were ERASED to show that NOTHING was "there" on the Ewa Plains where the railway line and stations are located.
Yet- under a HART TCP contract there WAS the identification of the extremely important Hawaiian "Leina a ka Uhane" - (Spiritual jumping off place) in this same Ewa Plains location.
So HOW could HART neglect to show the extremely important trails that the Royal Navy in the early 1800's felt were so visible and prominent that they were featured on one of the very first major maps of Oahu (and which show up on later published maps throughout the 1800's.)?

How did the THOUSANDS of people who were buried along this sacred Ewa wahi pana route get there?

WHERE did Hawaiians have their very important Makahiki processions and where did Hawaiian Alii travel along to go to the Ewa shoreline?

These were MAJOR Oahu Hawaiian trails and evidence of them STILL EXISTS- but developers are anxious to get there FIRST with SHPD approvals so that they can be forever wiped out.
HART RAIL Will Run Directly Though Most Sacred National Register Burial/Battlefield Sites

HART has intentionally HIDDEN this TCP information and the news media has failed to report this.

The news media not surprisingly would NOT do a story on a site where a HART TCP contractor stated contained hundreds if not THOUSANDS of iwi kupuna burial sites...

I recently obtained this 1878 trail map. It includes ORIGINAL published maps like this one and the 1825 Royal Navy Malden survey map - which I also now have in high resolution from the originals.

I used Photoshop to match up the 1878 trail map with a 1962 USGS map based upon an earlier archeological research report done for the US Navy BRAC in 1997-99 by the Tuggles (contracted archeologists.)

The Historic Malden Trail - Oneula Route- runs though MCAS Ewa Field, Ewa battlefield, Hunt Panhandle and by Barbers Point Riding Club stables revetments.

I also believe now that the original surveyors of the 1925 Ewa Mooring Mast located the tower near this same trail intentionally.

And the trails influenced the location the the Ewa Mill Plantation, which also influenced the route of the Oahu Railway line, which influenced the location of the Ewa Mooring Mast, etc...

The other Kualaka'i section runs by the MCAS Ewa Field Ewa Field Historic Warehouse district area (which still shows evidence of this trail) and down what was originally called Henderson Rd. and then on down to the US Coast Guard station where the Kualaka'i village was.

The Kualaka'i section of the Malden Trail runs exactly through where Shad Kane's well preserved ancient Hawaiian trail area is.

Scaling used Puu Kapolei, Onelua Beach and related landmarks to match the 1878 map to the 1962 USGS map.

Without out a doubt these are Oahu's most important and sacred trails and very likely used for annual Makahiki processions and likely for special Alii burial processions as part of the Kanehili "Leina a ka Uhane" wahi pana.

HART RAIL Will Run Directly Though These Most Sacred National Register Burial/Battlefield Sites but they don't want ANYONE to know.

Sunday, December 28, 2014